As distinct from sensational cases of corruption in high places, CIET has examined the “petty” corruption that takes place on a broad scale in many countries, sapping the life and resources out of public service systems and adding an additional burden on the lives of countless poor people. In the Baltic States, Bolivia, Nicaragua, Tanzania, Uganda and South Africa CIET has not only documented the extent of corruption and its impact on the lives of the population, but also assembled and analysed, together with its partners in government and civil society, practical recommendations for reducing corruption and overcoming its worst effects. Aspects of system leakage have also been researched by CIET in Bosnia, Mexico, Nepal, Costa Rica and Pakistan.
On the occasion of the Ninth International anti-Corruption conference in Durban, South Africa, 11 – 15 october 1999, CIET prepared the following Accountability Theme Sheets:
Accountability in Police Departments
Accountability in Customs Services
Accountability in Primary Education
Accountability in Health Services
Accountability in Justice Services
CIET has published four articles related to corruption:
Arosteguí J, Hernandez C, Suazo H, Cárcamo A, Reyes R, Andersson N, Ledogar RJ. Auditing Nicaragua’s anti-corruption struggle, 1998 to 2009. BMC Health Services Research 2011, 11(Suppl 2):S3. Available from:
Paredes-Solís S, Andersson N, Ledogar RJ, Cockcroft A. Use of social audits to examine unofficial payments in government health services: experience in South Asia, Africa, and Europe. BMC Health Services Research 2011, 11(Suppl 2):S12. Available from:
Paredes-Solís S, Villegas-Arrizón A, Ledogar RJ, Delabra-Jardón V, Álvarez-Chávez J, Legorreta-Soberanis J, Nava-Aguilera E, Cockcroft A, Andersson N. Reducing corruption in a Mexican medical school: impact assessment across two cross-sectional surveys. BMC Health Services Research 2011, 11(Suppl 2):S13. Available from:
Cockcroft A, Andersson N, Paredes-Solis S, Caldwell D, Mitchell S, Milne D, Merhi S, Roche M, Konceviciute E, Ledogar RJ. An inter-country comparison of unofficial payments: results of a health sector social audit in the Baltic States. BMC Health Services Research 2008, 8:15 (21 Jan 2008). Available from: