We developed three interventions to be tested in the trial, all related to the concept of choice disability and the hypothesis that reducing choice disability or its worst effects can reduce HIV infection.

The Beyond Victims and Villains (BVV) intervention is an educational programme around gender violence and HIV, implemented in different sectors of the population. The Focused Workshop (FW) is a supportive, empowerment programme aimed at young women aged 18-24 years. The third intervention, Concerting, involves introducing service providers in the community to the idea of choice disability and encouraging them to find ways to serve the choice disabled better, including working with other service providers to do this.

The BVV and Concerting interventions began in mid 2009 in the clusters allocated to receive them, while the FW intervention began in early 2010. All the interventions continued up until the time of the impact survey in late 2012.